Indian Submarine Powers Under Water

Etymologically, the word, ‘Submarine’ means ‘underwater’ or ‘under-sea’. It is a vessel with the ability to operate independently underwater, known as a submarine (or sub). It contrasts with a submersible, which has fewer capabilities for diving underwater. In the past and now, the phrase has also been used to describe small or medium-sized ships like the midget submarine and the wet sub, as well as remotely controlled vehicles and robots. Regardless of size, submarines are referred regarded as boats rather than ships.

The Indian Navy is one of the main elements of the Indian Armed Forces, which are governed by the Indian Government. At the moment, the Indian Navy is using sixteen diesel-powered submarines. Both Visakhapatnam on the east coast and Mumbai on the west coast are home to India’s submarine fleet.


The Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) submarine program was started by India in 1983, despite the country having discussed the possibility of nuclear-powered submarines as early as the 1960s. (source) One of the three legs of India’s triad of airborne, naval, and land-based platforms as a minimum nuclear deterrent is the ATV, which is a part of its sea-based nuclear deterrent (MND). India negotiated a ten-year lease of a Russian Project 971 Schuka-B (NATO designator Akula II) class vessel to get additional experience operating nuclear submarines.

Current Scenario:

The Ship Building Center (SBC) in Visakhapatnam will build six nuclear-powered assault submarines, according to Indian government approval in February 2015. The Indian Navy and ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) of Germany entered into a deal on June 29, 2016, to modify two of the four diesel-electric attack submarines of the Shishumar class, including equipping the vessels with Boeing anti-ship missile systems. India once more hired TKMS on September 28, 2018, to upgrade the INS Shishumar (Type 209).

Indian Submarine Powers Under Water

The partnership between Indian shipbuilder Larsen & Toubro and Russian shipyard Zvezdochka for an upgrade of the Kilo-class submarines was announced in July 2018. In collaboration with the French Naval Group, India is now building six new Scorpène-class ships on its own at the state-owned Mazagon Dock Ltd. (MDL) in Mumbai. Late in 2017, the Kalvari, the first of these submarines, was put into service. On September 28, 2019, the INS Khanderi (S22) was put into service. In March 2021, the INS Karanj (S23), INS Vela (S24), and INS Vagir (S25) were launched and successfully completed sea testing. The INS Vagsheer, the last vessel, is currently being built.

Indian Nuclear-powered Submarine Plan:

The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), the Indian Navy, and the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is in charge of the management and operations (M&O) of India’s nuclear-powered submarine program in Visakhapatnam. By putting its first ATV submarine, the INS Arihant, into service in August 2016, India started the process of operationalizing its nuclear trio. As well as versions of the nuclear-capable Nirbhay cruise missiles, the INS Arihant carries Sagarika (K-15) submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with a range of about 700 km.

The propulsion system of the INS Arihant reportedly flooded in January 2018 as a result of a crew member leaving a hatch improperly secured, rendering it inoperable for almost 10 months. However, it was revealed in November 2018 that INS Arihant had carried out its first deterrent patrol. The sort of SLBMs (Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles), the Arihant carried and whether they were equipped with nuclear warheads were not disclosed by the Indian government. Notably, it is official Indian policy to keep missiles with nuclear warheads separate from them.

The INS Arighat, the second of India’s four projected nuclear submarines of the Arihant class, was launched in November 2017. By 2021, the INS Arighat is anticipated to be put into service. Additionally, the shipbuilding facility in Vadodara has started work on the Indian Navy’s final two Arihant-class submarines, the S-3, and S-4. The K-15 delivery systems of the Arihant have been replaced by long-range K-4 (3,500 km) SLBMs in their replacements. The Arighat, the second submarine in this class, just finished sea testing and is scheduled to be put into service in 2022. It shares Arihant’s displacement.

Indian Submarine Powers Under Water

India and Russia agreed to lease another nuclear submarine of the Akula class to India for ten years in March 2019. By 2025, the Chakra-III, the new ship’s official name, would be handed over to the Indian Navy. India will be without a nuclear-powered submarine for five years as a result.

India recently built two facilities for submarines. Karwar, which is situated 500 kilometers south of Mumbai, is the first. The second is a covert naval installation known as INS Varsha, which is a component of a bigger initiative to boost India’s naval nuclear capabilities in response to recent advances made by China. This base will have underground enclosures for the submarines and is located close to Kakinada on the east coast.

Indian Navy is continuing with the emergence of being an inevitable power in the sea.

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